Vegetarian 4-course Dinner
Creamy Corn Soup with Veggie Bacon
Fruits and Vegetables Salad
Veggie Steak with Cooked Fresh Vegetables and Five-grain Rice
Dessert – Sweet Soup of Tapioca and Purple Rice
2 tbsp grape-seed oil
1 large onion, chopped
1 tbsp finely chopped garlic
1 tbsp finely chopped ginger
1 tbsp tomato paste
1 tbsp cumin seeds
1 tbsp fenugreek leaves
1 tbsp garam masala
1 tbsp Spanish paprika
1 tsp sugar
1 tsp ground turmeric
1 tsp salt
1 cup crushed tomatoes
3/4 cup low-fat plain yogurt
3/4 cup water
2 cups cubed paneer, pan-fried
Note: To give this dish a spicy kick, add 2 finely chopped green chilies with the tomatoes.
Makes 4 servings.
Source: Everyday Indian
Virginia Messina, MPH, RD wrote . . . . .
This versatile, ancient food comes in a variety of tastes and textures and is used in recipes ranging from smoothies to vegetable stir-fries.
Tofu has been appearing on menus throughout Asia for centuries. Although the first written record of tofu dates back to around 950 AD, some historians believe it was in existence at least 1,000 years earlier. One theory is that it was first produced when some long-forgotten cook seasoned warmed soymilk with sea salt, causing it to curdle and accidentally producing the soybean curds we now call tofu.
Tofu made its way to Japan by 1100 AD, probably introduced by Buddhist monks whose diets were vegetarian. In fact, early tofu shops may have been located in temples and monasteries. Travelers eventually brought tofu to all parts of Asia. Today, it’s perhaps the most important soyfood consumed in Hong Kong, Korea, and Singapore. In Japan, where adults eat one to two servings of soy foods per day, tofu accounts for about one-half of all soy consumed.
Tofu shops were established in large North American cities with Asian populations in the 19th century. By the mid-1900s, Seventh-day Adventist-run food companies also were producing tofu. But it wasn’t until the 1970s that tofu began to appear on menus outside of these communities, largely in response to an interest in natural foods and meatless diets.
Today, tofu is found in grocery stores in nearly every corner of America. It’s also the basis for a new crop of commercial meat and cheese analogs. Tofu hot dogs, cream cheese, sour cream, and mayonnaise represent a whole new generation of this ancient food.
The procedure for making all types of tofu follows the same general principles. First, a coagulant is added to soy milk — the liquid expressed from soaked soybeans. The coagulated milk can be consumed as is for the Japanese product called silken tofu. Or the soy milk can be allowed to form curds, which are then drained and pressed into blocks.
Block tofu usually is sold as extra-firm, medium-firm, or firm depending on its water content and density. Some companies also produce super- or ultra-firm tofu.
While recipes generally specify the type of tofu to use, there are no standard definitions to describe these different block tofu categories. One company’s firm tofu may be the same as another’s extra-firm variety. So while choosing the exact tofu to fit a recipe isn’t a science, it’s helpful to know that firmer types of tofu hold up well to sautéing and grilling while less firm types can work well for blending in soups, smoothies, and desserts. Sometimes it takes a little trial and error to find the right block tofu for the job.
Block tofu usually is water-packed in sealed containers. It should be kept refrigerated, and once opened any unused tofu should be stored in fresh water.
Japanese silken tofu is a delicate product in which the soy milk is coagulated but doesn’t form into curds and isn’t pressed. The result is a consistency similar to poached egg whites, which is a good choice for sauces, puddings, or smoothies. Silken tofu sometimes is used as an egg substitute in baking. Both soft and firm silken tofu are available. Some brands of silken tofu are sold in shelf stable aseptic packs. These should be refrigerated once the packs are opened.
Moreover, there are a number of specialty tofu products on the market. Black tofu is made from black soybeans. It’s usually fairly firm and looks and tastes similar to regular block tofu except there are black specks throughout the flesh. It may be somewhat higher in antioxidants than the more traditional tofu made from yellow soybeans.
Sprouted tofu is made from sprouted soybeans. It’s usually firm and can be used interchangeably with regular block tofu.
Fermented or pickled tofu is dried tofu that’s pickled with salt, rice wine, or vinegar. Sometimes it’s flavored with chili peppers. Fermented tofu most often is found in Asian food stores where it’s sold immersed in brine in jars. Its strong flavor makes it most suitable for use as a condiment.
The nutrient content of tofu varies widely depending on how it’s made. Generally, the firmer the tofu, the higher it is in calories, protein, and fat. Protein content ranges from about 4 g in 3 oz of soft silken tofu to 10 g in 3 oz of extra firm tofu.
Calcium content depends on the type of coagulant used to make the tofu. Traditionally, a naturally derived salt of magnesium chloride called nigari has been used to make tofu. Today, tofu more often is made using calcium sulfate as the coagulant, sometimes in addition to nigari, which can produce a calcium-rich tofu. Studies show that calcium absorption from tofu is comparable to that from cow’s milk.
Tofu also provides about 1 mg of well-absorbed iron per serving and is a source of alpha-linolenic acid, the essential omega-3 fatty acid. Some brands of tofu are fortified with vitamin B12 and vitamin D and sometimes with the omega-3 fats DHA and EPA from a vegetarian source.
Health Effects of Soybeans and Tofu
A serving of traditional soy foods such as tofu or soymilk provides about 25 mg of isoflavones. Although these phytochemicals are classified as plant estrogens, isoflavones are different from the female hormone estrogen. Isoflavones are regarded as SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators), which are molecules that can function as both estrogen agonists and antagonists. For example, in postmenopausal women, isoflavones appear to offer similar benefits as estrogen in reducing hot flashes and perhaps also for preventing skin wrinkling. But they don’t offer the same benefits as estrogen for bone health.
Isoflavones also may be protective against breast cancer whereas estrogen is thought to promote it. In China and Japan, women with the highest intakes of soyfoods are less likely to develop breast cancer. In addition, in women with breast cancer in both the United States and China, those who consume soy regularly are less likely to suffer a recurrence and die from the disease.
Epidemiologic studies show health benefits from soy consumption in men as well, since Asian men with higher intakes of soy foods are only one-half as likely to develop prostate cancer as men who seldom eat these foods.
Soy foods also appear to offer a comprehensive package of heart-healthy attributes. First, their isoflavones have been found to improve endothelial function in women who had impaired endothelial function. In addition, protein from soy foods has been shown to directly lower LDL cholesterol. A recent meta-analysis of clinical studies found that consuming 24 g of soy protein per day can reduce LDL cholesterol by 4.3%. In 1999, the FDA approved a health claim for soy foods based on the hypocholesterolemic effects of soy protein.13 Products that provide at least 6.25 g of soy protein per serving are eligible to boast the claim. Since then, 10 other countries have approved similar health claims for soy protein. A 3-oz serving of tofu contains between 4 g and 10 g of soy protein.
Finally, replacing animal proteins with tofu and other soy foods in the diet lowers saturated fat and cholesterol consumption. All of these benefits may add up to provide significant protection from cardiovascular risk factors. In a prospective study of 40,462 Japanese adults, women who consumed soy foods more than five times per week were about one-half as likely to suffer a heart attack compared with women who consumed soy foods less than two times per week, and were more than two-thirds less likely to die from heart disease.
A further example of the benefits of soy foods for reducing heart disease risk is seen in the Women’s Isoflavone Soy Health (WISH) Research Group study. Among the 350 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 92, isoflavone soy protein supplementation inhibited the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in the younger postmenopausal women (median age 53) who were less than five years postmenopausal and at low risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The women consumed 25 g of soy protein and 91 mg of isoflavones per day (the amount of isoflavones in about four servings of tofu).
One concern about isoflavones has focused on their effect on cognitive function. Researchers raised questions in 2000 when the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) found that cognitive impairment was more common in frequent tofu consumers than nonconsumers. A study in Indonesia showed similar findings for tofu, but not for tempeh, which also is rich in isoflavones. In fact, tempeh was associated with better cognitive function. However, a follow-up to the Indonesian study found both tofu and tempeh were associated with improvements in some aspects of cognition.
Due to the conflicting findings, and because HAAS wasn’t designed to study cognition, better information on this issue comes from more recent clinical trials. In the WISH study, there was no difference in cognitive scores between women consuming isoflavones and those in the control group, except that those taking the isoflavone supplements had greater improvements in visual memory. A 2014 meta-analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials concluded that soy isoflavone supplementation may improve summary cognitive function and visual memory in postmenopausal women. The study suggested that postmenopausal women could experience greater cognitive benefits if they begin soy isoflavone supplementation earlier in menopause rather than later.
Moreover, it’s important to note that similar to fiber and many other food components, soy foods can affect dosage requirements for people taking synthetic thyroid medications. Taking these medications between meals rather than with them can be helpful. In people with healthy thyroid function, soy foods have no effect on the thyroid.
Another benefit of tofu is that it’s versatile in recipes because of two distinctive features. First, it’s relatively bland and doesn’t compete with other flavors in recipes. It’s also porous, which allows it to absorb the flavors around it. It’s because of these features that tofu is found in dishes as diverse as spicy Thai curries, vegetable stir-fries, and chocolate cream pie.
Many recipes calling for firm or extra-firm tofu, especially those using a marinade, recommend pressing the tofu first. Pressing reduces the tofu’s water content, makes it firmer, and enhances its ability to absorb marinades. Commercial presses are available, but cooks who are new to tofu may not want to invest in a press right away. And even many who have been cooking with tofu for years are satisfied with homemade “presses” using a stack of books or heavy pots.
To press tofu without a commercial press, wrap the tofu in a clean dishtowel and place it on a plate. Cover with another inverted plate (flat side against the tofu) and pile some books or a tea kettle filled with water on top. Allow the tofu to press for 15 to 30 minutes depending on how firm you want it to be.
Freezing tofu is another popular preparation technique. It creates a spongy texture that takes very well to marinades. Simply put the unopened package of tofu into the freezer overnight. Defrost and squeeze the water out of it before using it in a recipe.
Note that silken tofu can’t be pressed and always should be used as is. For those who are new to tofu, adding it to stir-fried dishes with Asian flavors such as ginger, sesame oil, and tamari can be a great place to start. But inventive cooks use tofu in every kind of dish imaginable.
Source: Today’s Dietitian
New research reports that women who frequently consume fat-free or low-fat milk may delay the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Findings published in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) journal, Arthritis Care & Research, indicate that women who ate cheese saw an increase in knee OA progression. Yogurt did not impact OA progression in men or women.
OA is a common, degenerative joint disease that causes pain and swelling of joints in the hand, hips, or knee. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), OA affects nearly 27 million Americans age 25 and older, with knee OA being more prevalent and severe in women. While medical evidence points to obesity, joint injury, and repetitive use from some sports as risk factors for incident knee OA, risks associated with OA progression remain unclear.
“Milk consumption plays an important role in bone health,” explains lead author Bing Lu, M.D., Dr.P.H., from Brigham & Women’s Hospital in Boston, Mass. “Our study is the largest study to investigate the impact of dairy intake in the progression of knee OA.”
For the present study 2,148 participants (3,064 knees) with knee OA were recruited for the Osteoarthritis Initiative. At the start of the study dietary data was collected and joint space width was measured by x-ray to evaluate OA progression. Subjects included 888 men and 1,260 women who had follow-up at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months.
As the intake of milk increased from none to less than 3 , 4-6, and more than 7 (8 oz) glasses per week, the joint space width in women also decreased by 0.38mm, 0.29mm,0.29mm and 0.26mm, respectively. Results persisted even after adjusting for disease severity, body mass index (BMI) and dietary factors. No association between milk consumption and joint space width decrease was reported in men.
“Our findings indicate that women who frequently drink milk may reduce the progression of OA,” concludes Dr. Lu. “Further study of milk intake and delay in OA progression are needed.”
In a related editorial also published in Arthritis Care & Research, Shivani Sahni, Ph.D., and Robert McLean, D.Sc., M.P.H., from Harvard-affiliated Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research agree, “With the aging population and increase in life expectancy, there is an urgent need for effective methods to manage OA. The study by Lu et al. provides the first evidence that increasing fat-free or low-fat milk consumption may slow the progression of OA among women who are particularly burdened by OA of the knee, which can lead to functional disability.”
6 fresh salmon steaks, cut about 2 cm thick, 1.5 kg total weight
Basil Parmesan Butter
175 g unsalted butter
25 g freshly grated Parmesan cheese
1 teaspoon balsamic or sherry vinegar
25 g fresh basil leaves, sliced
freshly ground black pepper
1 large garlic clove, crushed
150 ml light olive oil
2 tablespoons balsamic or sherry vinegar
1-2 sprigs of thyme, crushed
If using other herbs, such as parsley, tarragon or marjoram, always use fresh: dried herbs are not very successful.
Makes 6 servings.