Learning to Like Spicier Food

Can people train themselves to tolerate heat?

A couple of years ago I was out to lunch in Bangkok at a cafeteria-style restaurant with communal tables. I had ordered one of my favorite dishes, larb moo, minced pork with peppers and spices. A few bites in I started to feel the heat. About a minute later my mouth was in full emergency mode. Bright red and with sweat pouring from my forehead, I began chugging down one bottled water after another. My Thai tablemates watched in obvious amusement. Several were also eating the larb moo, yet clearly weren’t feeling the heat to the degree that I was. Why?

“We know that when you eat spicy food over and over again, it does actually start to burn less,” says John Hayes, director of the Sensory Evaluation Center, a research facility at Pennsylvania State University that studies the relationships between food and the senses. “The reason that I might use a lot more Sriracha than you is because I could be desensitized and actually perceive less burn from it.”

How we register the effects of capsaicin, the active chemical in chilis responsible for that burning sensation, is regulated by a pain receptor known as TRPV1. TRPV1 receptors, found not only in the mouth but all over the body along the central and peripheral nervous system, regulate heat exposure and body temperature, says Hayes. “This is why when you chop chilies, and then rub your eyes—or use the bathroom—without washing your hands, you are in for a world of hurt,” Hayes warns.

Some of the body’s TRPV1 receptors are part of the trigeminal nerve, a branched nerve structure that stretches through the face, responsible for sensory regulation and some motor functions like chewing.

But that chili-spice sensation isn’t the result of an actual burn inside your mouth. It’s a sort of chemical trickery caused by the capsaicin. “In the arms race between plants and animals—in animals wanting to eat plants and plants not wanting to be eaten—the chili pepper evolved a chemical that fits into that molecular receptor [TRPV1] and lowers the activation energy from 43 [degrees] Celsius to about 34 [degrees] Celsius,” Hayes says. In other words, whereas the TRPV1 receptors would normally read a mouth temperature of 43 degrees as a burn, they are suddenly reading a lower number—one lower then your actual mouth temperature—as harmful. Suddenly it feels as if something is literally burning inside your mouth. “Human body temperature is 37, mouth temperature about 35, so now all the sudden you’re activating this nerve that is sending a signal to the brain that says, ‘Ow, I’m on fire.’” This is why we describe chill spice as hot or fiery. But is it possible to increase one’s tolerance to the effects of capsaicin?

“Absolutely,” Hayes says. “Anecdotally we absolutely know it’s true. It’s not, ‘If you didn’t start eating it at five, you’ll never learn to love it.’”

“It’s the ‘mere exposure’ effect,” adds Nadia Byrnes (pronounced, fittingly, “burns”), a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Davis, in the department of viticulture and enology. “Basically, if you don’t like something, the more you eat of it, the more you’ll like it.” Sounds simple enough. If you have a low tolerance to spicy food but make an effort to eat it more and more, Byrnes explains, you will eventually start to desensitize your nerves to the pain so that you will need to consume higher levels of capsaicin to reach that original intensity of burn.

But there have only been a handful of human case studies on capsaicin consumption, and the exact biological mechanisms behind individual tolerance levels and preferences remain fuzzy.

The psychological mechanisms, though, are a bit clearer. A recent study published in the journal Physiology and Behavior announced intriguing results. Researchers from the University of Grenoble-Alpes in France invited 114 men aged 18 to 44 into a testing lab for a meal of mashed potatoes and hot sauce. Researchers noted a positive correlation between the levels of testosterone in a subject and the amount of hot sauce he chose to apply to his potatoes: Those with higher levels drizzled on more of the spicy condiment. Those men also shared tendencies towards social dominance, aggression, and risk-taking behaviors, the researchers found.

But that doesn’t necessarily mean women would be less likely than men to order the Hell Scorcher Wings at the local pub. “In men and women, there may be divergent mechanisms leading to the intake of spicy foods,” Byrnes and Hayes wrote in a paper on gender differences and individual preferences towards spicy food. “Specifically, men may respond more to extrinsic factors, while women may respond more to intrinsic factors.” They found that men would typically choose to up the Scoville count of their meal (Scoville being the unit used to measure capsaicin concentration), because they enjoyed the praise from onlookers. Women tended to do so simply because they enjoyed the heat-pain sensation.

But it is hard to say if these findings would apply to people everywhere. Issues of gender are tied deeply into cultural and sociological configurations that differ widely across social groups and cultures. Could a guy in Thailand expect high-fives from his pals after going extra-spicy on his larb moo? “When you have a culture where all the food is spicy, I suspect you probably wash out any relationship between spicy food intake and personality because of learned associations and cultural norms and all those sort of things, but until we actually test that, we won’t know,” Hayes says.

Still, it seems that with a little repetition, anyone can learn to enjoy the burn. I would recommend bringing milk, though.

Source: The Atlantic

For Health’s Sake, Quit Smoking…Your Oils

Most of us know that cooking with oils is healthier than cooking with butter or margarine. However, it isn’t as commonly known that oils can actually lose their nutritional value at certain temperatures. Not only can oils lose some of their ability to lower your risk of heart disease, but Romi Londre, a Mayo Clinic Health System dietitian, says they can also have an unpleasant taste if they get too hot.cooking oil being poured from a glass bottle into a pan

“Every type of oil has a certain temperature at which it will start to break down and lose some of its healthy properties,” says Londre. “That temperature is called the smoke point because it’s the temperature at which the oil will smoke and start producing toxic fumes and harmful free radicals.”

“It’s important be aware of the smoke points of oils so you can choose the right oil for the job,” Londre adds. “Some oils are better suited for higher temperatures. A good rule of thumb is that the more refined the oil, the higher the smoke point.”
When cooking at high temperatures, stir-frying or roasting, Londre says it’s best to use corn, soybean, peanut, sesame and or vegetable oils because they have high smoke points. “Olive, canola and grape seed oils are great choices for cooking with medium-high heat, such as sauteing,” she says. “Flax seed and walnut oils have low smoking points, so it may be a healthier choice to use them in salad dressings, dips or marinades.”

Reducing the amount of saturated fats and trans fats from your diet, such as from butter, margarine, lard and shortening, may help decrease total blood cholesterol levels, as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is known as bad cholesterol. This will help you prevent your risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.

Some people get enough oil in the foods they eat, such as from fish and nuts. For a chart of the amount of oils in common foods, visit http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/oils-counts.pdf.

Source: Mayo Clinic

Breakfast Scones

Ingredients

1½ cups fresh cranberries
2 tbsp water
1/2 cup sugar
1 tbsp brown sugar
2 cups unbleached flour
2 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/4 tsp salt
2 tbsp margarine cut into small pieces
3/4 cup low-fat buttermilk
1 egg white
1/4 cup chopped pecans

Method

  1. Preheat an oven to 400°F. Coat a baking sheet with nonstick cooking spray.
  2. In a small saucepan over medium heat, combine the cranberries, water and half the sugar. Simmer until the cranberries are tender and the mixture thickens, about 10 minutes.
  3. In a food processor with the metal blade or by hand in a large bowl, combine the remaining sugar, brown sugar, flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt. Process or stir to mix well. Add the margarine and process or use a fork to blend until the mixture resembles coarse meal.
  4. In a small bowl, combine the buttermilk and egg white. Stir into the flour mixture.
  5. Turn the dough onto a lightly floured work surface and knead gently about 5 times. Form into a ball, place on the prepared baking sheet and press into an 8-inch round. Using a lightly floured knife, cut the round into 12 wedges without cutting completely through to the baking sheet. Spoon an equal amount of the cranberry mixture onto the center of each wedge and press down gently with the back of the spoon. Top with an equal amount of the pecans. Bake until golden brown and a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean, 13-15 minutes. Cool for 10 minutes.
  6. To serve, cut into 12 pieces. One serving is 2 scones. Store wrapped in plastic wrap in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.

Makes 6 servings.

Source: Cooking for Healthy Living

What’s for Breakfast?

Home-cooked Chinese Breakfast

The Menu

  • Rice Congee with Shredded Pork
  • Fried Egg with Basil
  • Assorted Pickled Vegetables
  • Papaya

Today’s Comic

What’s for Dinner?

Thai Dinner for Two

The Menu

Tum Yum Soup

Thai-style Shrimp Sashimi

Chicken Satay and Grilled Zucchini

Beef Tenderloin with Green Papaya Salad

Grilled Pork Neck

Yellow Curry Crab with Roti Prada

Dessert – Baby Coconut Milk Pudding

Grilled Duck Breast

Ingredients

4 boneless skin-on duck breast, 6 to 8 oz each
4 blood oranges
1/2 cup pomegranate concentrate
6 tbsp honey
1 tbsp balsamic vinegar
salt and pepper
1/2 cup pomegranate seeds

Method

  1. Peel and segment oranges. Leave the segments in a colander top drain. Reserve the juice.
  2. In a small saucepan over medium heat, combine 4 tbsp orange juice, the pomegranate concentrate, honey, vinegar and a pinch of salt. Simmer until thick enough to coat the back of a spoon, 10 to 15 minutes.
  3. Pat dry duck breast and cut away excess fatty skin. Score the skin in a crosshatch pattern, without cutting into the flesh, at 1/2-inch intervals. Remove the tenderloins and trim away any sinew from the undersides of the breasts. Season the breast with salt and pepper.
  4. Preheat grill to medium-high.
  5. Pan-fry the duck breast in batches with skin-side down over medium-high heat to render the fat, 4 to 5 minutes.
  6. Mix the duck with half of the pomegranate glaze.
  7. Place the duck on the grill, skin-side down. Grill, turning once, until browned and cooked to your liking, 4 to 5 minutes per side for medium. During the last 2 minutes of cooking, brush with the leftover marinade.
  8. Remove duck to a platter, tent with foil, and let rest for 5 minutes.
  9. Stir the orange segments and pomegranate seeds into the reserved glaze.
  10. Slice duck breast across the grain on the bias. Fan out the slices on serving plates and spoon the glaze on top before serving.

Makes 4 servings.

Source: Adventure in Grilling

In Pictures: Decorative Sushi

Kazari Maki Sushi