Difference between Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Christine Hammond wrote . . . . . .

OCPD and OCDIt is amazing the difference one word can make. Add the word “Personality” to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and it changes the definition and classification. There are some similarities such as obsessive and compulsive traits, thoughts and actions. However the underlying disorder is extremely different.

Here is the DSM-V definition of both:

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is classified as a type of personality disorder:

A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

  • Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
  • Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
  • Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
  • Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
  • Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
  • Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
  • Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
  • Shows significant rigidity and stubbornness

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is classified as a type of obsessive compulsive related disorder:

Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both:

Obsessions are defined by:

  • Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety or distress.
  • The individual attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action.

Compulsions are defined by:

  • Repetitive behaviors (hand washing) or mental acts (counting) that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly.
  • The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent, or are clearly excessive.
  • The obsessions or compulsions are time-consuming or cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The similarities are:

  • Both can create significant relational issues and make it difficult to interact with others.
  • Both have intense, obsessive, and racing thoughts that are difficult to manage or prevent.
  • Both develop internal rules to be strictly followed in an effort to reduce stress or anxiety.
  • Both do compulsive behaviors to self-sooth such as hording or excessive cleaning.
  • Both have extremely high expectations of self to the point of requiring perfectionism.
  • Both can have “meltdowns” if a compulsion is not followed or their image is tarnished.

The big differences are:

  • OCPD can be seen in every environment and is pervasive whereas OCD is usually isolated to a few specific things or locations.
  • OCD is a learned behavior usually done as a way of coping with extreme stress whereas OCPD is part biological and part environmental beginning in early childhood and continuing through out adulthood.
  • A person may change OCD behaviors as they age whereas OCPD behaviors cannot be changed without significant effort and therapy.
  • OCD behaviors can cause significant impairment at work whereas OCPD behaviors are usually praised at work because of their strong devotion to it.
  • OCD behaviors are frequently done out of fear to avoid an undesirable outcome whereas OCPD behaviors are done out of fear of not living up to internal perfectionist expectations.
  • By outward appearance alone, it is difficult to identify an OCD person whereas OCPD persons are usually extremely well groomed, dress impeccably, and are very aware of the perfectionist image they portray.
  • OCD people know their behaviors or fears tend to be irrational whereas OCPD people believe their thinking is more correct than others and have a difficult time accepting the idea that their reasoning might be inaccurate.

The good news about both disorders is that they tend to do very well with therapy and the prognosis can be quite good.

Source: PsychCentral

‘Fat But Fit’ a Myth?

No amount of extra weight is good for your heart, no matter how fit you are by other measures, new British research shows.

“Our findings suggest that if a patient is overweight or obese, all efforts should be made to help them get back to a healthy weight, regardless of other factors,” said study co-author Camille Lassale, from Imperial College London’s School of Public Health.

“Even if their blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol appear within the normal range, excess weight is still a risk factor,” Lassale said in a university news release. In fact, the increased risk of developing heart disease was more than 25 percent, the study found.

The study used statistics about the health of people in 10 European countries. Researchers focused on weight and signs of heart disease, when blood vessels become clogged.

The authors looked at more than 7,600 people who had cardiovascular events such as death from heart attack, and compared them to 10,000 people who didn’t have heart problems.

After adjusting their figures so they wouldn’t be thrown off by other lifestyle factors, the researchers found that people with three or more heart risk factors like high blood pressure, high cholesterol or large waist sizes (more than 37 inches for men and 31 inches for women) were more than twice as likely to have heart disease, regardless of whether their weight was normal or above normal.

But those who were considered overweight yet healthy were still 26 percent more likely to develop heart disease than their normal-weight peers. Those considered healthy but obese had a 28 percent higher risk, the study found.

The findings, which don’t prove that extra weight causes heart risks to rise, were published Aug. 14 in the European Heart Journal.

“I think there is no longer this concept of healthy obese,” said study co-author Ioanna Tzoulaki, a senior lecturer in epidemiology at the university.

“If anything, our study shows that people with excess weight who might be classed as ‘healthy’ haven’t yet developed an unhealthy metabolic profile. That comes later in the timeline, then they have an event, such as a heart attack,” she said.

Source: HealthDay


Today’s Comic

Bug Burgers Are Coming to Swiss Stores

Richard Weiss wrote . . . . . .

Swiss shoppers will soon get the chance to buy burger patties and meatballs made out of beetle larvae as supermarket chain Coop tests consumers’ appetite for less-common alternatives to beef and pork.

The mealworm burger patties, which also contain rice, carrots and spices such as oregano and chili, will cost 8.95 francs ($9.24) for a pack of two, spokesman Urs Meier said by phone. The bug balls will sell at the same price for a pack of 10, and both products hit shelves of select stores on Aug. 21.

“These products are perfectly suited for those who want to learn about the culinary diversity of insects,” Coop procurement manager Silvio Baselgia said in a statement. Coop suggests eating the insect balls in pita bread with fresh vegetables and smothered in yogurt sauce.

Bugs have taken a long time to make it on mainstream menus even though United Nations food experts have argued that they can satisfy meat cravings without all the damage to rain forests and depletion of water. Edible insects have a long culinary tradition in African and Asian cultures, though their high-grade animal protein is only available in a few locations in Europe, such as the U.K. restaurant Grub Kitchen.

Mealworms, which are beetle larvae, have a mild flavor that becomes slightly nutty when roasted, according to insect-eating blog Bugible.com.

The burgers will cost about twice the price of Coop’s Naturplan Bio organic beef burgers, and almost five times as much as the least expensive burgers in its online store.

The products will first be available at stores in Zurich, Basel, Bern, Winterthur, Lugano, Lausanne and Geneva, plus online. The retailer said it plans to offer a wider selection of edible insects at more stores by year-end.

Coop has been working with Swiss startup Essento to prepare the meat substitutes for three years, and the launch date was shifted back from May due to organizational issues, according to Meier. Essento breeds mealworms in Belgium, but intends to produce in Switzerland going forward, Meier said.

Source : Bloomberg

Pork Belly and Cabbage Cooked in White Wine

Ingredients

180 to 200 g pork belly thin slices
1/2 medium-size cabbage
salt and ground black pepper to taste

Seasoning

3 tbsp white wine
1/3 tsp salt
2 tsp olive oil

Method

  1. Cut meat into 4 to 5 cm in length. Mix with some salt and pepper.
  2. Tear by hand the cabbage into pieces.
  3. Layer the pork and cabbage alternately in a pot. Add seasoning ingredients. Cover and cook over medium heat.
  4. When the liquid boils, turn down heat and simmer until the pork is fully cooked and the cabbage pieces are tender.
  5. Taste and adjust with salt and pepper before serving.

Source: Hong Kong magazine

Foods for Healthy Teeth

Amy Freeman wrote . . . . . . .

When it comes to the health of your teeth, you really are what you eat. Sugary foods, such as candy and soda, contribute to tooth decay. One of the first areas to decline when your diet is less than ideal is your oral health, according to the American Dental Association (ADA). Use this healthy foods list to improve your diet and the health of your mouth.

Cheese

If you’re one of the many people who profess a love of cheese, you now have another reason to enjoy this tasty food. A study published in the May/June 2013 issue of General Dentistry, the journal of the American Academy of General Dentistry, reported at EurekAlert! found that eating cheese raised the pH in the subjects’ mouths and lowered their risk of tooth decay. It’s thought that the chewing required to eat cheese increases saliva in the mouth. Cheese also contains calcium and protein, nutrients that strengthen tooth enamel.

Yogurt

Like cheese, yogurt is high in calcium and protein, which makes it a good pick for the strength and health of your teeth. The probiotics, or beneficial bacteria, found in yogurt also benefit your gums because the good bacteria crowd out bacteria that cause cavities. If you decide to add more yogurt to your diet, choose a plain variety with no added sugar.

Leafy Greens

Leafy greens typically find their way onto any healthy foods list. They’re full of vitamins and minerals while being low in calories. Leafy greens such as kale and spinach also promote oral health. They’re high in calcium, which builds your teeth’s enamel. They also contain folic acid, a type of B vitamin that has numerous health benefits, including possibly treating gum disease in pregnant women, according to MedlinePlus. If you have trouble getting leafy greens into your diet, add a handful of baby spinach to your next salad or throw some kale on a pizza. You can also try adding some greens to a smoothie.

Apples

While the ADA recommends steering clear of most sweet foods, there are some exceptions. Fruits, such as apples, might be sweet, but they’re also high in fiber and water. The action of eating an apple produces saliva in your mouth, which rinses away bacteria and food particles. The fibrous texture of the fruit also stimulates the gums. Eating an apple isn’t the same as brushing your teeth with a toothpaste that contains fluoride, but it can tide you over until you have a chance to brush. Pack either a whole apple or apple slices in your lunch to give your mouth a good scrubbing at the end of the meal.

Carrots

Like apples, carrots are crunchy and full of fiber. Eating a handful of raw carrots at the end of the meal increases saliva production in your mouth, which reduces your risk of cavities. Along with being high in fiber, carrots are a great source of vitamin A. Top a salad with a few slices of raw carrots, or enjoy some baby carrots on their own.

Celery

Celery might get a bad reputation for being bland, watery and full of those pesky strings, but like carrots and apples, it acts a bit like a toothbrush, scraping food particles and bacteria away from your teeth. It’s also a good source of vitamins A and C, two antioxidants that give the health of your gums a boost. Make celery even tastier by topping it with cream cheese.

Almonds

Almonds are great for your teeth because they are a good source of calcium and protein while being low in sugar. Enjoy a quarter cup of almonds with your lunch. You can also add a handful to a salad or to a stir-fry dinner.

Along with adding more leafy greens, dairy products and fibrous vegetables to your diet, pay attention to what you’re drinking. Since it has no calories or sugar, water is always the best pick, especially compared to juice or soda. Your diet makes a big difference when it comes to a healthy smile.

Source: Colgate