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Italian-style Pork Belly Casserole

Ingredients

100 g pork belly slices
1 onion
1/4 cabbage
1/2 carrot
1 tomato
1/2 cup chicken broth
shredded cheese of your choice
salt and pepper

Method

  1. Cut long pork slices into smaller pieces.
  2. Cut onion in half and then cut into thin slices.
  3. Cut cabbage into chunks.
  4. Cut carrot into slices.
  5. Remove stem of tomato and cut into dices.
  6. Layer in sequence onion, cabbage, carrot and tomato in a heat-proof casserole. Place pork on top.
  7. Add broth and cook, covered, over low-medium heat for 5 minutes.
  8. Add salt, pepper and shredded cheese. Cover and cook for another 5 minutes. Serve hot.

Source: Japanese magazine

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The Sea Cucumber Genome Points to Genes for Tissue Regeneration

A new high-definition genome sequence of the sea cucumber provides molecular insights into its ability to regenerate, according to a new study publishing 12 October in the open access journal PLOS Biology by Xiaojun Zhang, Lina Sun, Hongsheng Yang and Jianhai Xiang, of the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and colleagues. The genome sequence also helps explain why the sea cucumber has such a radically different skeletal structure from other members of the echinoderm phylum, and may be useful for understanding evolution of the animal kingdom.

Sea cucumbers form one class of the echinoderms, a phylum that also includes sea urchins and sea stars (“star fish”). Echinoderms and chordates (a closely related phylum that includes humans) share a feature that distinguishes them from most other animals: they are so-called deuterostomes, in which the anus, rather than the mouth, forms first in development. Sea cucumbers are unique among echinoderms in not having a hardened calcium exoskeleton, and in their capacity to regenerate damaged or lost body parts and viscera to a much greater extent than sea urchins or sea stars.

To explore the genetic underpinnings of these features, and to better understand the evolution of the deuterostomes, the authors performed high-definition genomic sequencing of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (also known as the Japanese sea cucumber), covering about 92% of its estimated 880 megabases of DNA, including more than 30,000 genes.

By comparing the genome of A. japonicus with that of other organisms, the authors found evidence that the echinoderms diverged from hemichordates (a small group of marine deuterostomes that includes the acorn worms) about 533 million years ago and the sea cucumbers split off from other the echinoderm classes about 479 million years ago. The authors showed that while the sea urchin genome includes 31 genes for biomineralization, critical for forming a calcified skeleton, the sea cucumber has only seven such genes. They also found that the sea cucumber expressed these biomineralization genes at much lower levels throughout development, likely accounting for their softer bodies compared to sea urchins.

As a strategy to scare off predators, sea cucumbers can expel their viscera, which they can then regenerate within several weeks. The authors found a group of duplicated genes, called PSP94-like genes, that were specifically expressed in the regenerating intestines of the sea cucumber, which had no corresponding genes in other echinoderms, suggesting that these genes may be crucial to the animals’ ability to quickly regrow their viscera. A second group of genes, called fibrinogen-related proteins, were also duplicated and highly expressed during regeneration, indicating they likely contribute to this ability as well.

“The sea cucumber is a particularly promising model animal for regenerative medicine,” said Xiang, and the availability of its genome should aid efforts to study the biology of regeneration and determine if echinoderm regrowth can offer insights that can be applied to human medicine. “Our findings should also facilitate the understanding of the requirements for sustainable utilization and effective breeding of echinoderms, in support of the high-value sea cucumber industry,” which includes its use as a source of food and traditional Chinese medicine.

Source: Science Daily


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The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration . . . . .

Men Develop Irregular Heartbeat Earlier Than Women; Extra Weight a Factor

Men develop a type of irregular heartbeat, known as atrial fibrillation, about a decade earlier than women on average, and being overweight is a major risk factor, according to a large new study published in the American Heart Association’s journal Circulation.

In atrial fibrillation, the upper chambers of the heart, or atria, quiver instead of beat to move blood effectively. Untreated atrial fibrillation increases the risk of heart-related death and is linked to a five times increased risk of stroke. In the new research, having the condition more than tripled a person’s risk of dying.

“It’s crucial to better understand modifiable risk factors of atrial fibrillation,” said study author Christina Magnussen, M.D., a medical specialist in Internal Medicine and Cardiology at the University Heart Center in Hamburg, Germany. “If prevention strategies succeed in targeting these risk factors, we expect a noticeable decline in new-onset atrial fibrillation.”

This would lead to less illness, fewer deaths and lower health-related costs, she said.

Researchers reviewed records of 79,793 people (aged 24 to 97) in four community-based studies in Europe. The participants did not have atrial fibrillation at the outset. Later assessments of their health — with a median follow-up period of 12.6 to a maximum of 28.2 years — showed that 4.4 percent of the women and 6.4 percent of the men had been diagnosed with the condition.

Researchers noted atrial fibrillation:

  • diagnosis rates jumped when men were 50 or older and women were 60 or older;
  • developed in about 24 percent of both men and women by age 90;
  • onset was tied to higher blood levels of C-reactive protein (inflammation marker) in men; and
  • new atrial fibrillation cases increased more in men than women with increases in body mass index (BMI): 31 percent in men and 18 percent in women.

“We advise weight reduction for both men and women,” Magnussen said. “As elevated body mass index seems to be more detrimental for men, weight control seems to be essential, particularly in overweight and obese men.”

Researchers were surprised to find that higher total cholesterol, a risk factor for heart disease, lowered risk for developing atrial fibrillation, especially in women, although exactly why is not clear.

Due to its design, the study could not shed light on pathophysiological factors causing sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk. The authors also note that atrial fibrillation might have been underdiagnosed at the study’s start and later records may not reflect all cases. Strengths of the research include that it studied the condition in the general population and noted how individuals fared over long periods.

Since study participants were from both northern and southern Europe, the findings will probably apply to other Caucasian populations but cannot be generalized to other groups, Magnussen said. However, since BMI in the study was such a strong risk factor for atrial fibrillation, it is likely to also be impactful in other groups, she added.

According to American Heart Association statistics, between 2.7 and 6 million Americans are living with atrial fibrillation, and more than 12 million are expected to have the condition in 2030. Risk factors include body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, previous heart attack or stroke and presence of heart disease.

Source: American Heart Association


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