Secrets of Metabolism

Brenda Goodman wrote . . . . .

If you’re trying to manage your weight, you’ll need to mind your metabolism.

Metabolism, specifically resting metabolism, is the body’s engine. It’s the energy you burn just to keep your heart beating, your lungs breathing, and your other organs running.

Unless you’re an elite athlete, resting metabolism accounts for 60% to 75% of all the calories you burn each day, and it varies a lot from person to person.

If you’re counting calories, knowing your resting metabolism can help you figure out how much you can eat without gaining weight.

People who have a naturally high metabolic rate can eat more, without gaining weight, than people who burn calories at a slower pace.

Sounds great, right? You’ve got this awesome internal combustion engine that burns hundreds of calories a day without you having to do a single situp.

Now for the bad news: It’s hard to boost your resting metabolism much beyond its natural set point, though it is possible to slow it down.

Here’s what science has shown can put a dent in your ability to lose weight and keep if off.

Sleep

Researchers have known that short sleep leads to weight gain. People who don’t get at least 6 hours of sleep at night are prone to overeating, and they usually crave starchy, sugary foods.

It turns out that overeating isn’t the only issue when you’re cheating sleep; not getting enough shut-eye also slows metabolism.

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania recently brought 36 healthy adults into their sleep lab. Over 5 days, half the group was only allowed to sleep 4 hours a night; the other half got to sleep up to 10 hours at a time.

Even though the sleep-restricted group was active and awake for more hours of the day, their resting metabolisms slowed by about 50-60 calories a day, says senior study author Namni Goel, PhD. Goel studies sleep medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

It’s not a huge amount, but “that can add up across multiple nights of sleep restriction,” she says.

Even more concerning, Goel says, is that metabolism sputters just as appetite goes up. Her sleep-restricted volunteers were eating about 500 more calories each day, so the total calorie imbalance just from not getting enough sleep was substantial — around 550 calories a day, enough to lead to about a pound of weight gain each week.

Protein

Kevin Hall, PhD, a senior investigator at the National Institutes of Health, has been doing experiments to test the idea that all calories are equal, no matter where they come from. With fats and carbohydrates, that seems to be true. But Hall says protein seems to be a different story.

“It looks like there might be some benefit to increasing the amount of protein that you eat,” he says, though more research is needed before he can say for sure. And he’s not sure why protein might boost metabolism, but he has some theories.

The body spends more energy trying to digest and absorb proteins than it does fats and carbohydrates.

“It also might increase metabolic rate, but very slightly. We’re not talking about huge increases here,” Hall says.

Diets that switch the body’s calorie primary fuel source from sugar or carbohydrates to fats also may help with your metabolism. Diets that do this are called ketogenic diets. They tend to be higher in fats or proteins and lower in carbohydrates.

In a recent study, Hall had 17 overweight or obese men followed two different low-calorie diets. The first was a diet that was higher in carbohydrates and lower in fats. The second was a ketogenic diet that was lower in carbohydrates and higher in fats. Protein was kept the same between the two diets. The men lost weight on both diets, but their metabolisms were slightly higher on the ketogenic diet.

The take-home message for people who are looking to lose weight is that if you’re going to cut calories, don’t cut your protein intake.

Eating more protein may help keep your resting metabolism high, which can help you both lose weight and keep it off after.

Weight Loss

When we lose weight, our bodies fight hard to regain it.

Eric Ravussin, PhD, director of the Nutrition Obesity Research Center at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, likens this resistance to weight loss to what happens when you pull on a spring.

“The more you pull your weight away from your natural settling point, the more your body is going to resist,” he says.

One way the body resists weight loss is to slow down its resting metabolism. The more rapid and extreme the weight loss, the more metabolism appears to slow.

A recent series of studies has shown exactly how dramatic the metabolic slowdown after weight loss can be.

Hall spent 6 years following contestants from season eight of “The Biggest Loser” reality show.

The show takes obese people and pairs them with trainers who push them through extreme exercise — up to 4 1/2 hours each day — and strict diets so they quickly lose weight.

At the end of the competition, which lasts for 7 months, some people had lost as much as half their starting weight.

The trouble is that their metabolisms slowed even as the pounds flew off.

By the end of the show, when they were at their lowest weight, their resting metabolisms had dropped by more than 600 calories a day, on average.

Researchers had expected some slowing in their daily calorie burn, but the metabolic plunge was even more than scientists had predicted. And contrary to what experts had expected, their metabolisms never adjusted after their extreme weight loss. In some cases, they slowed even more.

Thirteen of the 14 contestants regained some of the weight they lost. Four contestants are heavier now than before they joined the show. Some have said their junk food cravings are still there, though their capacity to burn them off isn’t.

“We took a look at this extreme case of very huge lifestyle changes, huge amounts of weight loss because we wanted to see how strongly the body responds when you intervene to such a large degree. The answer is pretty darn strongly,” Hall says.

Hall thinks that hormones — particularly the hormone leptin, which banishes hunger — may play a role.

In a different study, “Biggest Loser” contestants had 80% less leptin at the end of their weight loss than a similar group of people who’d lost weight after bariatric surgery.

Scientists are currently testing whether giving leptin injections after weight loss might preserve metabolism and prevent weight regain.

Until there’s a drug to prevent weight regain, the take-home message here, says Ravussin, is that slow and steady is a better way to lose weight if you want to have a better chance of keeping it off.

Even better, Hall says, is to try to change the way you think of weight loss. Instead of going on a diet — dramatically cutting calories and killing yourself at the gym — to get to a certain weight, he says it’s better to focus on adopting habits you’ll be able to stick with over the long run.

Source: WebMD

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Tofu, Vegetables and Rice Noodles in Curry Broth

Ingredients

1 small boiling potato, such as red bliss, diced
12 ounces extra-firm tofu, cut into large squares
3 ounces shiitake mushrooms, stemmed and sliced
1 small onion, thinly sliced
1-1/2 cups cauliflower florets
2 carrots, sliced on the bias
3 ounces sugar snap peas, trimmed
salt
1 (8-ounce) package rice stick noodles, soaked according to package directions
1/2 cup chopped roasted unsalted cashews
1/4 cup fresh cilantro leaves

Curry Broth

2-2/3 cups unsweetened coconut cream
1-2/3 cups unsweetened coconut water
1 lemongrass stalk, mashed
1 tablespoon plus 1-1/2 teaspoons chopped fresh ginger
2 dried shiitake mushroom caps
3 tablespoons Thai red curry paste
2 tablespoons honey
1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lime juice
1 kaffir lime leaf, torn, or 1 teaspoon freshly grated lime zest
4 sprigs cilantro
3 fresh basil leaves
1/3 teaspoon curry powder
1/8 teaspoon salt

Method

  1. To make the Curry Broth, combine the ingredients in a large pot over medium heat. Once the broth starts to simmer, reduce the heat to low and cook for 30 minutes. Do not boil. Strain the broth through a fine-mesh strainer into a large saucepan. Set aside. (The broth may be made ahead and refrigerated for 3 days or frozen for up to 1 month.)
  2. Put the potato in the Curry Broth and cook over medium heat, but do not boil, just until the pieces start to become tender when pierced with a fork.
  3. Add the tofu, mushrooms, onion, cauliflower, and carrots. Continue to cook until all the vegetables are tender, about 5 minutes.
  4. Add the sugar snap peas and cook for another 2 minutes. Adjust the seasoning with salt.
  5. Divide the curry among warm bowls, then add the noodles to the bowls. Top with the cashews and cilantro before serving.

Makes 4 to 6 servings servings.

Source: True Food

In Pictures: Foods of Eqvita Restaurant in Monte Carlo

Vegan Cuisine

The Restaurant

American College of Physicians Updates Recommendations for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Physicians should prescribe metformin to patients with type 2 diabetes when medication is needed to improve high blood sugar, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends in an evidence-based clinical practice guideline published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.

If a second oral medication is needed to improve high blood sugar, ACP recommends that physicians consider adding either a sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, SGLT-2 inhibitor, or DPP-4 inhibitor to metformin.

The American Academy of Family Physicians has endorsed the guideline.

“Metformin, unless contraindicated, is an effective treatment strategy because it has better effectiveness, is associated with fewer adverse effects, and is cheaper than most other oral medications,” said Nitin S. Damle, MD, MS, MACP, president. ACP. “The escalating rates of obesity in the U.S. are increasing the incidence and prevalence of diabetes substantially. Metformin has the added benefit of being associated with weight loss.”

ACP updated its 2012 guideline on the comparative effectiveness and safety of oral medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of several new studies evaluating medications for type 2 diabetes as well as recent FDA approvals of several new medications.

“Adding a second medication to metformin may provide additional benefits,” Dr. Damle said. “However, the increased cost may not always support the added benefit, particularly for the more expensive, newer medications. ACP recommends that clinicians and patients discuss the benefits, adverse effects, and costs of additional medications.”

Diabetes is a leading cause of death in the U.S. The disease can affect other areas of the body and can cause retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and coronary artery, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease complications. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease (affecting 90 to 95 percent of persons with diabetes), affecting about 29.1 million people in the U.S.

ACP’s Guideline Development Process ACP’s guideline is based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and observational studies on the comparative effectiveness of oral medications for type 2 diabetes. Evaluated interventions include metformin, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Evaluated outcomes included: intermediate outcomes of hemoglobin A1c, weight, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate; all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality; retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy; and harms.

ACP’s clinical practice guidelines are developed through a rigorous process based on an extensive review of the highest quality evidence available, including randomized control trials and data from observational studies. ACP also identifies gaps in evidence and direction for future research through its guidelines development process.

Source: EurekAlert!


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