Price of a Pint of Beer Around the World in Charts

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Price of Beer in US Dollars Ranked by Cities

Video: Cafe X Robotic Coffeebar

Watch video at You Tube (0:55 minutes) . . . .

Read also at Business Insider:

This coffee bar employs futuristic robotic baristas to make and serve your coffee . . . . .

Soft Flatbread for Sandwich Wrap


12-3/4 to 13-3/4 ounces Unbleached all-purpose flour
10 ounces boiling water
1-5/8 ounces potato flour or potato flakes
1-1/4 teaspoons salt
7/8 ounce vegetable oil
1 teaspoon instant yeast


  1. Place 2 cups of the flour into a bowl or the bucket of a bread machine. Pour the boiling water over the flour, and stir until smooth. Cover the bowl or bucket and set the mixture aside for 30 minutes.
  2. In a separate bowl, whisk together the potato flour (or flakes) and 1 cup of the remaining flour with the salt, oil and yeast.
  3. Add this to the cooled flour/water mixture, stir, then knead for several minutes — by hand or mixer — to form a soft dough. Add additional flour only if necessary. If kneading by hand, keep your hands and work surface lightly oiled. Let the dough rise, covered, for 1 hour.
  4. Divide the dough into 8 pieces (each about the size of a handball, around 3 ounces), cover, and let rest for 15 to 30 minutes.
  5. Roll each piece into a 7″ to 8″ circle, and dry-fry them (fry without oil) over medium heat for about 1 minute per side, until they’re puffed and flecked with brown spots. Adjust the heat if they seem to be cooking either too quickly, or too slowly. Cooking too quickly means they may be raw in the center, while too slowly will dry them out.
  6. Transfer the cooked breads to a wire rack, stacking them to keep them soft.
  7. Serve immediately, or cool slightly before storing in a plastic bag for up to 4 days. Freeze for up to a month.

Baker’s Tip

This recipe works best with instant yeast because it dissolves during the kneading process, so you don’t have to knead liquid into the dough. If you really prefer to use active dry yeast, use only 1 cup boiling water for the initial dough, dissolve the yeast in 1/4 cup warm water, and add this mixture to the dough along with the potato flour mixture. It’ll be somewhat “slippery” at first, but will knead in and eventually become smooth.

Makes 8 pieces.

Source: King Arthur Flour

Carbon Dioxide Reduces Belly Fat

The first randomized, controlled trial testing carbon dioxide gas injections (carboxytherapy) to reduce belly fat found the new technique eliminates fat around the stomach. However, the changes were modest and did not result in long-term fat reduction, according to the Northwestern Medicine study.

“Carboxytherapy could potentially be a new and effective means of fat reduction,” said lead author Dr. Murad Alam, vice chair of dermatology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a Northwestern Medicine physician. “It still needs to be optimized, though, so it’s long lasting.”

The paper was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

The new technique’s benefits are that it is a “safe, inexpensive gas, and injecting it into fat pockets may be preferred by patients who like natural treatments,” Alam said. “Non-invasive fat reduction has become increasingly sought-after by patients.”

Benefits of a non-invasive approach are diminished downtime, avoidance of scarring and perceived safety.

Current technologies routinely used for non-invasive fat reduction include cryolipolysis, high intensity ultrasound, radiofrequency, chemical adipocytolysis and laser-assisted fat reduction.

Carboxytherapy has been performed primarily outside the U.S., with a few clinical studies suggesting it may provide a lasting improvement in abdominal contours. The way carboxytherapy works is not well understood. It is believed that injection of carbon dioxide causes changes in the microcirculation, and damages fat cells.

No randomized controlled trials for carboxytherapy efficacy and benefit over time have been previously conducted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of carboxytherapy for fat reduction in a randomized, controlled trial, and to determine if any observed benefits persisted for six months. ?

The Northwestern study consisted of 16 adults who were not overweight (body mass of 22 to 29) and were randomized to get weekly carbon dioxide gas injection to one side of their abdomens and a sham treatment on the other side once a week for five weeks. A high-resolution ultrasound detected a reduction in superficial fat after five weeks but not at 28 weeks. The patients’ body weight did not change over the course of the study.

That the difference was not maintained at six months suggests the treatment stimulated a temporary metabolic process that reduced the size of fat cells without inducing cell death, Alam said.

“If carboxytherapy can provide prolonged benefits, it offers patients yet another noninvasive option for fat reduction,” Alam said. “But we don’t feel it’s ready for prime time.”

Source: Science Daily

Study: Playing Mahjong and Betting on Horse Racing Could Decrease Dementia Risk

Jeffie Lam wrote . . . . . . . .

Playing mahjong and betting on horse racing, two hugely popular but often maligned intellectual pastimes in Hong Kong, could help to decrease the risk of dementia in the elderly, the latest research in the city has confirmed.

Seniors have always been encouraged to stay active in order to delay the onset of the condition, but research – published in the peer-reviewed medical journal JAMA Psychiatry last month – found that only some types of leisure activities are helpful in combating dementia.

“The most significant finding of this study is that engagement in intellectual activities in late life might be useful in delaying or preventing the onset of symptoms of dementia,” Dr Allen Lee Ting-chun, one of the researchers and an assistant professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong’s department of psychiatry, told the Post.

In the study conducted between 2005 and 2012, with statistical analysis performed from 2015 to 2016, the group of researchers followed a total of 15,582 Hongkongers aged 65 or older who were free of dementia for a median period of five years.

It found that those who remained free of dementia during the follow-up period had engaged in more varieties of leisure activities at the beginning of the study than those who developed incident dementia, with a larger proportion performing intellectual activities – such as such as reading, playing mahjong, board and card games as well as betting on horse racing.

Almost 67 per cent of those participants who showed no symptoms of dementia participated in intellectual activities, comparing to the 50.7 per cent of those who eventually displayed such symptoms.

The proportion of participants engaging in social activities – such as going to social centres, participating in voluntary work or meeting relatives and friends – as well as recreational activities, including watching television or shopping, was however not significantly different between the two groups.

The study has also found that the proportion of respondents who continued participating in daily intellectual activities three years after the study began was larger in those who remained free of dementia than in those who developed dementia at years four to six. No such associations were found between the maintenance of social or recreational activities and lower incidences of dementia.

“This finding suggests that choosing the right kind of activity appears to be more important than engaging in various non-intellectual activities in preventing dementia,” it wrote.

A Hong Kong Playground Association survey in 2016 found that “resting and sitting” turned out to be the favourite pastime for more than 60 per cent of the city’s retirees.

Elderly Commission chairman Dr Lam Ching-choi, also an adviser to Chief Executive Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor in the Executive Council, said the study was a good reference to the city with its large sample size and the long observational period.

“Elderly people should be encouraged not to engage in too many passive activities … but instead, activities that are more engaging, stimulating and also challenging in places such as community centres,” he said.

Although Leung Siu-yue, 82, no longer plays mahjong as often as during her younger years, she now enjoys her time playing a tile-based game akin to mahjong with her friends in Southern District Integrated Elderly Service Centre.

“We don’t keep the tiles to ourselves but [we] display them, so we can help each other,” she said. “I can see some of us – whose minds used to be not too clear – make some progress over time.”

Intellectual activities have also proven to help Lau Kan-fat and Lam Yau keep their minds agile. The pair, both in their 90s, are among the most active members of the centre.

While Lau – an avid reader – likes to write poetry on whatever things that come to mind, Lam, once hit by a stroke, is enthusiastic about reading newspapers and fishing.

“You do not just stand there to fish – it requires a lot of thinking and technique,” Lam said.

Source : SCMP

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