Bubble and Squeak with Pear and Apple Chutney


2 tablespoons butter
1 onion, sliced
1 garlic clove, finely chopped
1/4 white cabbage, shredded
2 cups mashed potato
2-1/2 cups roast vegetables (squash, carrot and parsnip)
l/4 cup freshly chopped flat-leaf parsley
black pudding, thickly sliced and grilled
4 fried eggs
sea salt and black pepper, to season

Pear and Apple Chutney
(makes 1.5 litres)

1/3 cup vegetable oil
2 small red onions, finely diced
7 apples, finely diced
7 pears, finely diced
1-1/4 cups soft brown sugar
1-1/4 cups dark brown sugar
3/4 cup red wine vinegar
2 tablespoons ground ginger
1 tablespoon ground coriander
1 tablespoon ground allspice


  1. Make the pear and apple chutney, heat the oil in a heavy-bottomed saucepan or pot set over low heat. Saute the onions, apples and pears until the onions are translucent.
  2. Add the remaining ingredients and simmer gently until the fruit is soft and the liquid has evaporated.
  3. While still warm, spoon the chutney into sterilized, glass jars and, if not using straight away, seal and store. Carefully tap them on the counter to get rid of any air pockets, wipe clean and tightly screw on the lids. Turn the jars upside down and leave until completely cold. Store unopened for up to 6 months or in the fridge once opened for up to 2 months.
  4. Melt the butter in a non-stick frying pan/skillet set over low-medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and cook for about 10 minutes, until soft and caramelized.
  5. Add the shredded cabbage and sweat down for 2-3 minutes.
  6. Add the mashed potato, other roast vegetables, parsley, salt and pepper, and mix well. Cook for a further 15-20 minutes, turning the vegetables from time to time and using a spatula to flatten the vegetables onto the base of the pan so that they catch and get a crispy bottom.
  7. Serve with a fried egg, thick slices of grilled black pudding and some chutney.

Makes 4 servings.

Source: 100 ways with eggs

Egg Dishes Around the World

Egg Brik, Tunisia

Baghali Ghatogh, Iran

Quindim, Brazil

Khagina, Pakistan and Afghanistan

Kaiserschmarren, Austria-Hungary

Scotch Woodcock, England

Airborne Viruses Can Spread on Dust, Nonrespiratory Particles

Andy Fell wrote . . . . . . . . .

Influenza viruses can spread through the air on dust, fibers and other microscopic particles, according to new research from the University of California, Davis, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The findings, with obvious implications for coronavirus transmission as well as influenza, are published in Nature Communications.

“It’s really shocking to most virologists and epidemiologists that airborne dust, rather than expiratory droplets, can carry influenza virus capable of infecting animals,” said Professor William Ristenpart of the UC Davis Department of Chemical Engineering, who helped lead the research. “The implicit assumption is always that airborne transmission occurs because of respiratory droplets emitted by coughing, sneezing or talking. Transmission via dust opens up whole new areas of investigation and has profound implications for how we interpret laboratory experiments as well as epidemiological investigations of outbreaks.”

Fomites and influenza virus

Influenza virus is thought to spread by several different routes, including in droplets exhaled from the respiratory tract or on secondary objects such as door handles or used tissues. These secondary objects are called fomites. Yet little is known about which routes are the most important. The answer may be different for different strains of influenza virus or for other respiratory viruses, including coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2.

In the new study, UC Davis engineering graduate student Sima Asadi and Ristenpart teamed up with virologists led by Dr. Nicole Bouvier at Mount Sinai to look at whether tiny, nonrespiratory particles they call “aerosolized fomites” could carry influenza virus between guinea pigs.

Using an automated particle sizer to count airborne particles, they found that uninfected guinea pigs give off spikes of up to 1,000 particles per second as they move around the cage. Particles given off by the animals’ breathing were at a constant, much lower rate.

Immune guinea pigs with influenza virus painted on their fur could transmit the virus through the air to other, susceptible guinea pigs, showing that the virus did not have to come directly from the respiratory tract to be infectious.

Finally, the researchers tested whether microscopic fibers from an inanimate object could carry infectious viruses. They treated paper facial tissues with influenza virus, let them dry out, then crumpled them in front of the automated particle sizer. Crumpling the tissues released up to 900 particles per second in a size range that could be inhaled, they found. They were also able to infect cells from these particles released from the virus-contaminated paper tissues.

Source: UCDavis

Watch video at You Tube (1:00 minute):

Crumpling of a virus-soaked paper tissue releases tiny particles into the air . . . . .

Low Humidity Increases COVID Risk; Another Reason to Wear a Mask

A study in June focused on the Greater Sydney area during the early epidemic stage of COVID-19 found an association between lower humidity and an increase in community transmission.

Now a second study in August by the same team confirms the risk.

The study is published in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

The research led by Professor Michael Ward, an epidemiologist in the Sydney School of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney, and two researchers from our partner institution Fudan University School of Public Health in Shanghai, China, is the second peer-reviewed study of a relationship between weather conditions and COVID-19 in Australia.

“This second study adds to a growing body of evidence that humidity is a key factor in the spread of COVID-19,” Professor Ward said.

Dry air and COVID-19

Lower humidity can be defined as “drier air”. The study estimated that for a 1 percent decrease in relative humidity, COVID-19 cases might increase by 7-8 percent.

The estimate is about a 2-fold increase in COVID-19 notifications for a 10 percent drop in relative humidity.

“Dry air appears to favour the spread of COVID-19, meaning time and place become important,” Professor Ward said. “Accumulating evidence shows that climate is a factor in COVID-19 spread, raising the prospect of seasonal disease outbreaks.”

Why humidity matters

Professor Ward said there are biological reasons why humidity matters in transmission of airborne viruses.

“When the humidity is lower, the air is drier and it makes the aerosols smaller,” he said, adding that aerosols are smaller than droplets. “When you sneeze and cough those smaller infectious aerosols can stay suspended in the air for longer. That increases the exposure for other people. When the air is humid and the aerosols are larger and heavier, they fall and hit surfaces quicker.

“This suggests the need for people to wear a mask, both to prevent infectious aerosols escaping into the air in the case of an infectious individual, and exposure to infectious aerosols in the case of an uninfected individual,” Professor Ward said.

Key findings

  • Additional evidence from the Sydney COVID-19 epidemic has confirmed cases to be associated with humidity
  • Reduced humidity was found in several different regions of Sydney to be consistently linked to increased cases
  • The same link was not found for other weather factors – rainfall, temperature or wind
  • Climatic conditions conducive to the spread of COVID-19 present a challenge to public health.

Source: The University of Sydney

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