Too Much Time on a Computer, Watching TV or Other Sedentary Activities Raises Stroke Risk

Adults younger than age 60 whose days are filled with sedentary leisure time (which includes using the computer, TV, or reading) and little physical activity have a higher stroke risk than people who are more physically active, according to new research published in Stroke, a journal of the American Stroke Association, a division of the American Heart Association.

According to American Heart Association statistics, U.S. adults spend an average of 10.5 hours a day connected to media such as smartphones, computers or television watching, and adults ages 50 to 64 spend the most time of any age group connected to media. Data also indicate that stroke-related deaths decreased in 2010 among adults 65 years and older. However, death from stroke appears to be on the rise among younger adults, ages 35 to 64 years – increasing from 14.7 in every 100,000 adults in 2010 to 15.4 per 100,000 in 2016. Previous research suggests the more time adults spend sedentary, the greater their risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke, and nearly 9 in 10 strokes could be attributed to modifiable risk factors such as sedentary behaviors.

“Sedentary time is increasing in the United States and Canada,” said study author Raed A. Joundi, M.D., D.Phil., a stroke fellow in the department of clinical neurosciences at the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary in Canada. “Sedentary time is the duration of awake activities that are done sitting or lying down. Leisure sedentary time is specific to the sedentary activities done while not at work. It is important to understand whether high amounts of sedentary time can lead to stroke in young individuals, as a stroke can cause premature death or significantly impair function and quality of life.”

In this study, researchers reviewed health and lifestyle information for 143,000 adults with no prior stroke, heart disease or cancer who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in years 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007-2012. Researchers followed the participants for an average of 9.4 years (until Dec. 31, 2017) and identified strokes through linkages with hospital records.

They reviewed the amount of time spent each day in leisure sedentary activities (hours spent on computer, reading and watching TV) and divided them into categories of less than four hours per day; four to less than six hours per day; six to less than eight hours per day; and eight hours or more a day. They also divided physical activity into quartiles, or four equal categories, where the lowest quartile was the least physically active and equivalent to going for a walk for 10 minutes or less daily. “A walk of 10 minutes or less per day is lower than half of what the American Heart Association’s physical activity guidelines recommend,” Joundi said.

The American Heart Association recommends adults get at least 150 minutes, or 2.5 hours, of moderate-intensity physical activity per week.

Analysis of study participants found:

  • During the follow-up period, an average of 9.4 years, 2,965 strokes occurred. Nearly 90% of those were ischemic strokes, the most common stroke type, which occurs when a vessel supplying blood to the brain is obstructed.
  • The average daily leisure sedentary time among all participants was 4.08 hours. Individuals aged 60 and younger had an average leisure sedentary time of 3.9 hours per day. Average daily leisure sedentary time was 4.4 hours for adults aged 60 to 79, and 4.3 hours for those 80 years and older.
  • Adults 60 years and younger who had low physical activity and reported eight or more hours of leisure sedentary time a day had a 4.2 times higher risk of stroke compared to those reporting less than four hours of daily leisure sedentary time.
  • The most inactive group — those reporting eight or more hours of sedentary time and low physical activity — had 7 times higher risk of stroke compared to those reporting less than four hours of sedentary time a day and higher levels of physical activity.

“Adults 60 years and younger should be aware that very high sedentary time with little time spent on physical activity can have adverse effects on health, including increased risk of stroke,” Joundi said. “Physical activity has a very important role in that it reduces the actual time spent sedentary, and it also seems to diminish the negative impact of excess sedentary time. Physician recommendations and public health policies should emphasize increased physical activity and lower sedentary time among young adults in combination with other healthy habits to lower the risks of cardiovascular events and stroke.”

A significant limitation of the study’s results was that the survey did not ask participants about occupation-related sedentary time; this could mean sedentary time is underreported among people who have desk jobs, for example.

Source: American Heart Association

What’s for Lunch?

Mackerel Set Meal at Kitchen Café K&K in Tsukuba City, Japan

The price is 1,100 yen plus tax.

Study: Fully Vaccinated People with “Breakthrough” COVID Delta Infections Carry as Much Virus as the Unvaccinated

Tucker Reals wrote . . . . . . . . .

A study by University of Oxford scientists has found that people who contract the Delta variant of COVID-19 after being fully vaccinated carry a similar amount of the coronavirus as those who catch the disease and have not been inoculated. The researchers stressed that vaccination still offers good protection against catching the disease in the first place, and protects against getting seriously ill with it.

The survey of real-world U.K. data indicates, however, that vaccinated people with “breakthrough” infections could still pose a significant infection risk to those who have not been vaccinated.

“With Delta, infections occurring following two vaccinations had similar peak viral burden to those in unvaccinated individuals,” the study, which has not yet been peer reviewed, concludes. Viral “burden” or viral load refers to how much coronavirus-infected people carry and thus “shed,” or release into the environment around them, where it can potentially infect others.

The survey compared U.K. government data on more than 380,000 people who tested positive for the coronavirus between December and May of this year, when the first-discovered Alpha variant accounted for most of the cases in Britain, with figures for more than 350,000 people infected over the following four months, when Delta was dominant.

Oxford’s lead researcher, Dr. Sarah Walker, told The Telegraph that the study shows two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna or AstraZeneca vaccines “are still protective. You are still less likely to get infected – but if you do, you will have similar levels of virus as someone who hasn’t been vaccinated at all.”

The data used for the study do not show how likely it is that a fully vaccinated person with the Delta variant can pass on the infection to another individual, compared to an unvaccinated individual with the virus. But the high viral loads found in the study are a strong indicator that the risks of transmission from both vaccinated and unvaccinated people with the Delta variant could be similar.

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The findings could have implications for policy makers who’ve banked for months on hopes that by vaccinating a large proportion of any given population, they will also protect people who cannot or will not get inoculated themselves by reducing transmissions overall.

“The fact that they [fully vaccinated people] can have high levels of virus suggests that people who aren’t yet vaccinated may not be as protected from the Delta variant as we hoped,” Walker told the British newspaper. “It comes back to this concept of herd immunity, and the hope that the unvaccinated could be protected if we could vaccinate enough people. But I suspect the higher levels of the virus in vaccinated people are consistent with the fact that unvaccinated people are still going to be at high risk.”

The message from Walker and her team at Oxford was clear: Vaccination remains the best way to protect against infection, and certainly against serious illness or hospitalization with COVID-19, including the Delta variant.

None of the coronavirus vaccines approved for use in the U.S. or U.K. thus far eliminate the risk of infection, but they all reduce that risk by between about 70% and 90% — and they’ve proven much more potent at preventing hospitalizations and deaths.

“There are lots of reasons why the vaccines may be very good at reducing the consequences of having the virus,” Walker told The Telegraph. “You may well still have a milder infection and might not end up getting hospitalized.”

She said that while the results of the ongoing vaccine effectiveness study were important, “they aren’t everything, and it is really important to remember the vaccines are super-effective at preventing hospitalizations.”

Source : CBS

Hemp-crusted Trout with Thai Broth

Ingredients

Thai Broth

6 cups Dashi
2 tablespoons chopped fresh ginger
2 stalks lemongrass, coarsely chopped
5 kaffir lime leaves, torn, or zest of 1 lime
1 tablespoons sugar
1 tablespoon fish sauce
1 teaspoon sambal oelek or sriracha sauce
juice of 1 lime

(Makes 6 cups)

Hemp Seed Crust

6 tablespoons hemp seeds
1 kaffir lime leaf, finely chopped

Roasted Oyster Mushrooms and Kabocha Squash

2 pounds oyster mushrooms, sliced
1 kabocha or butternut squash, peeled, seeded, and cut into 1/2-inch wedges
3 tablespoons expeller-pressed canola oil
1/2 teaspoon salt
pinch of freshly ground black pepper

Trout

6 rainbow or brook trout fillets, skin on
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon freshly ground white pepper
3 to 6 tablespoons expeller-pressed canola oil
2 tablespoons chopped fresh mint
2 tablespoons chopped fresh basil
1 scallion, chopped
3 Thai red chilies, thinly sliced (optional)

Method

  1. Put the Dashi, ginger, lemongrass, lime leaves, sugar, and fish sauce in a saucepan. Bring to a simmer over medium heat. Reduce the heat to medium-low and cook for 10 minutes.
  2. Remove from the heat and strain the liquid through a fine-mesh strainer into a saucepan, pressing down on the solids to extract all the flavors. Discard the solids in the strainer.
  3. Return the broth to low heat and add the sambal oelek. Keep warm until needed.
  4. Add the lime juice just before ladling the broth over the vegetables.
  5. Pulse 3 tablespoons of the hemp seeds in a spice grinder. Pour into a small bowl and add the remaining 3 tablespoons hemp seeds and lime leaf. Stir to combine. Set aside.
  6. Preheat the oven to 400°F. Line a baking sheet with a silicone baking mat or aluminum foil.
  7. Place the mushrooms and squash in a large bowl. Add the oil, salt, and pepper, tossing to coat evenly. Arrange the mushrooms and squash in a single layer on the prepared baking sheet. Bake for 20 minutes, until lightly browned and the squash is tender when pierced with a knife.
  8. Season the trout with the salt and pepper and sprinkle with the hemp seed crust.
  9. Heat 3 tablespoons of the canola oil in a nonstick skillet over medium-high heat until the oil shimmers. Add 2 trout fillets to the hot pan, and sear the fish on both sides until golden brown. Transfer to a heated plate and repeat until all the trout is cooked, adding more of the canola oil as needed.
  10. To serve, divide the roasted mushrooms and squash among warm serving bowls. Ladle some of the hot Thai broth into each bowl and top with the mint, basil, and scallion. Add a trout fillet to each dish and top with the chilies, if using.

Makes 6 servings.

Source: True Food


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