Pokemon Doughnuts of Krispy Kreme Australia

The box of dozen doughnuts is available exclusively online for a limited time for A$29.95.

Sepsis


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Overview

Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body’s response to an infection damages its own tissues. When the infection-fighting processes turn on the body, they cause organs to function poorly and abnormally.

Sepsis may progress to septic shock. This is a dramatic drop in blood pressure that can lead to severe organ problems and death.

Early treatment with antibiotics and intravenous fluids improves chances for survival.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of sepsis

To be diagnosed with sepsis, you must have a probable or confirmed infection and all of the following signs:

  • Change in mental status
  • Systolic blood pressure — the first number in a blood pressure reading — less than or equal to 100 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
  • Respiratory rate higher than or equal to 22 breaths a minute

Signs and symptoms of septic shock

Septic shock is a severe drop in blood pressure that results in highly abnormal problems with how cells work and produce energy. Progression to septic shock increases the risk of death. Signs of progression to septic shock include:

  • The need for medication to maintain systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 65 mm Hg.
  • High levels of lactic acid in your blood (serum lactate). Having too much lactic acid in your blood means that your cells aren’t using oxygen properly.

When to see a doctor

Most often, sepsis occurs in people who are hospitalized or who have recently been hospitalized. People in an intensive care unit are more likely to develop infections that can then lead to sepsis.

Any infection, however, could lead to sepsis. See your doctor about an infection or wound that hasn’t responded to treatment. Signs or symptoms, such as confusion or rapid breathing, require emergency care.

Causes

While any type of infection — bacterial, viral or fungal — can lead to sepsis, infections that more commonly result in sepsis include infections of:

  • Lungs, such as pneumonia
  • Kidney, bladder and other parts of the urinary system
  • Digestive system
  • Bloodstream (bacteremia)
  • Catheter sites
  • Wounds or burns

Risk factors

Several factors increase the risk of sepsis, including:

  • Older age
  • Infancy
  • Compromised immune system
  • Diabetes
  • Chronic kidney or liver disease
  • Admission to intensive care unit or longer hospital stays
  • Invasive devices, such as intravenous catheters or breathing tubes
  • Previous use of antibiotics or corticosteroids

Complications

As sepsis worsens, blood flow to vital organs, such as your brain, heart and kidneys, becomes impaired. Sepsis may cause abnormal blood clotting that results in small clots or burst blood vessels that damage or destroy tissues.

Most people recover from mild sepsis, but the mortality rate for septic shock is about 40%. Also, an episode of severe sepsis places you at higher risk of future infections.

Source: Mayo Clinic

Chart: Association of Global Crude Oil, Atmospheric Pollutants and Pesticide Production with Population Growth and Chronic Disease Trends

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Source: Elsevier

Postponing Retirement Might Help Keep Dementia at Bay

Amy Norton wrote . . . . . . . . .

Early retirement may sound appealing, but a recent study hints that putting it off a few years might help older adults retain more of their mental sharpness.

Using data on more than 20,000 older Americans, researchers estimated that if all of those people waited until age 67 to retire, their collective cognitive health would benefit.

“Cognition” refers to a person’s ability to think, reason, plan and remember, among other vital brain functions. Research suggests that various factors over a lifetime — from education level to exercise habits to heart health — can affect a person’s rate of cognitive decline, and risk of dementia, later in life.

For the new study, researchers wanted to estimate the possible impact of later retirement on people’s cognitive functioning.

In theory, spending more years on the job would be protective — in a “use it or lose it” kind of way, explained lead researcher Jo Mhairi Hale of the University of St. Andrews, in Scotland.

“Those who keep working are ‘forced,’ let’s say, to stay cognitively engaged, while those who retire may choose to be involved in cognitively engaging activities, but not necessarily,” Hale said.

Her team started with data on more than 20,000 Americans aged 55 to 75 who took part in a long-running health survey called the Health and Retirement Study. It included standard questions that gauge memory and other brain functions.

Many respondents were still working, at least part-time, while about 45% were retired.

The researchers used statistical methods to estimate what would happen if all study participants were “forced” to delay retirement until at least age 67.

In real life, there is a whole host of factors that could sway both a person’s cognitive health and retirement age. And some people might retire earlier because their mental acuity is declining.

Hale said the Health and Retirement Study examined a “plethora of life-course factors,” so that allowed her team to account for some of that complexity.

The investigators weighed factors like people’s education levels; childhood family income and current wealth; health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease; depression symptoms; and whether their longest-held job was professional or “non-professional” (such as manual labor).

In the end, the researchers calculated that delaying retirement until age 67 or older would help people retain some mental sharpness. On average, the group lost about 1 point on their cognitive scores between the ages of 61 and 67; delaying retirement, the researchers estimated, could reduce that by one-third.

The team also found that the benefit could persist for at least five years beyond retirement.

That was not because the extra work years offered bonus brain power. It was because earlier retirement was linked to a faster cognitive decline, the researchers said.

So should older adults keep punching the clock in order to protect their brain health?

The study does not answer that question, according to Claire Sexton, director of scientific programs and outreach for the Alzheimer’s Association.

“It’s definitely a tricky thing to examine the effect of just one event, like retirement age,” said Sexton, who was not involved in the study.

For one, she noted, many factors affect people’s retirement decisions — including whether they enjoy their work and find it stimulating, and whether their job is stressful or physically taxing.

Similarly, Sexton said, a range of factors sway dementia risk, from genes to health conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease to obesity and lack of exercise.

That caveat made, Sexton agreed that staying on the job might be beneficial — if it provides people with mental stimulation and social interaction. A body of research suggests those things may help protect the aging brain.

Of course, jobs are not the only way to stay mentally and socially engaged.

Retirement could be used as a “springboard,” Sexton said, freeing up time to take a class, start a new exercise routine, or join a club or volunteer group.

Hale agreed that retirees “would be well-served to regularly participate in cognitively engaging activities.”

A next research step, she said, “would be to explore the extent to which alternative activities that promote cognitive engagement — such as grandparenting or volunteering — are protective against cognitive decline.”

The findings were recently published online in the journal SSM Population Health.

Source: HealthDay

Apple Strudel

Ingredients

1-1/2 cup plain flour
1 egg
1 tbsp oil
1/3 cup warm water
5 oz butter
2-1/2 oz butter, extra

Filling

4 large apples
1/2 cup castor sugar
1 tsp vanilla essence
1 oz butter
1/4 tsp ground nutmeg
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1 cup white breadcrumbs
1 tsp grated lemon rind
3/4 cup raisin
1/2 cup brown sugar

Method

  1. Peel and core apples. Use potato peeler to slice apple thinly. Place in bowl with sugar and vanilla, mix well. Allow to stand for 1 hour.
  2. Melt butter in pan. Add breadcrumbs. Stir over low heat until golden brown. Allow to cool. Mix with brown sugar.
  3. Drain apple. Combine with nutmeg, cinnamon, lemon rind and raisin. Mix lightly.
  4. Sift flour. Make a well in the centre. Add egg and oil. Gradually add water. Mix to soft dough with hands. Knead into a ball on floured surface. Pick up the dough and throw on floured surface for 100 times. Knead for 5 mins. Form to a ball. Cover and stand in warm place for 45 mins.
  5. Cover large table with clean cloth and rub flour over surface. Roll out dough as far as it goes. Flour hands, slip under dough. Pull dough from centre with back of hands gently and carefully. Continue stretching dough until it is paper thin. Brush with melted butter.
  6. Sprinkle combined breadcrumbs mixture over half the pastry. Spoon apple mixture along one end of pastry about 5 cm from the edge. Fold in sides of pastry to edge of apple filling. Gather cloth in hand and roll up apple strudel. Place on greased baking sheet. Brush with melted butter. Bake in moderately hot 425°F oven for 35-40 mins. Dust with icing sugar when cool.

Makes 1 roll.

Source: Cakes and Desserts Making


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